What is eutrophication?
Eutrophication is a process in which there is excessive accumulation of nutrients salts in the sea or pond water which causes excessive growth of algae or aquatic plants on the surface of water resulting in the deterioration of the quality of water, fish killing and many other harmful effects causing to the ecosystem.
Mechanism :- when these algae and aquatic plants die, the bacterias decomposing these organisms use oxygen which is dissolved in water making it unavailable or less available for the aquatic animals living in the sea causing their death.
Causes :- There are major 2 causes for eutrophication.
1. Agricultural cause :- Fertilizers and pesticides used for agricultural purposes contain phosphate and nitrogen.
Phosphates and nitrogen are essential for the growth of plants. When these chemicals washed away to the water bodies, they cause excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants.
2. Industrial waste :- Most of the Industrial waste water is discharged into the water bodies. This waste water contains the excessive nutrients appropriate for the growth of plants.